The relation between thyroid function and anemia: a pooled analysis of individual participant data
In the longitudinal analyses (n=25,466 from 14 cohorts), the pooled hazard ratio for the risk of development of anemia was 1.38 [95% CI: 0.86-2.20] for overt hypothyroidism, 1.18 [1.00-1.38] for subclinical hypothyroidism, 1.15 [0.94-1.42] for subclinical hyperthyroidism and 1.47 [0.91-2.38] for overt hyperthyroidism. Sensitivity analyses excluding thyroid medication or high levels of C-reactive protein yielded similar results. No differences in mean annual change in hemoglobin levels were observed between the thyroid hormone status groups.
Conclusion: Higher odds of having anemia were observed in both participants with hypothyroid function and hyperthyroid function. In addition, reduced thyroid function at baseline showed a trend of increased risk of developing anemia during follow-up. It remains to be assessed in a randomized controlled trial whether treatment is effective in reducing anemia.